Union forces capture Fort Esperanza, off the coast of Texas.
The Battle of Fort Sanders is fought outside of Knoxville; it is a decisive Union victory; Confederate forces are unable to penetrate Union defensive lines and suffer over 800 casualties.
Confederate General Braxton Bragg, who had been recently defeated outside Chattanooga, telegraphs his resignation to President Jefferson Davis.
The medical director at the prisoner of war camp in Richmond, Virginia, concerned about the high mortality rate, recommends the establishment of a new prisoner of war camp. The result would be the notorious Andersonville prison.
Union forces pursue Confederate forces retreating from the vicinity of Chattanooga; Union forces are concentrated in the vicinity of Ringgold, in preparation for a battle the next day.
At the Battle of Missionary Ridge, Union forces under Major General Ulysses Grant route Confederate forces under General Braxton Bragg; the latter are compelled to retreat towards Dalton, Georgia.
At the Battle of Lookout Mountain, Union forces under Major General Joseph Hooker defeat Confederate forces under Major General Carter Stevenson.
Union troops under Major General Ulysses Grant capture a Confederate position on Orchard Hill, outside Chattanooga.
Confederate General Braxton Bragg orders Major General Patrick Cleburne to withdraw his and Simon Buckner’s divisions from outside Chattanooga and to join Lieutenant General James Longstreet at Knoxville.
Union ships begin a bombardment of Fort Sumter.
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